BBO Nonlinear Crystals

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Description

β-Barium borate (β-BaB2O4 or BBO) is a nonlinear optical crystal which combines a number of unique features. These features include broad transmission and phase matching ranges, large nonlinear coefficient, high damage threshold, high quality single crystals and excellent optical homogeneity. Therefore, Beta-BaB2O4 provides an attractive solutions for various nonlinear optical applications. Besides, BBO is one of the best candidates for electro-optical applications due to its excellent electro-optical properties.

BBO crystals have been widely used in non-linear optical applications like OPO, OPA, OPCPA and other. Thanks to its large spectral transmission range as well as phase matching, BBO crystals have been applied in second, third, fourth or fifth harmonic generations for high power visible/UV sources and optical parametric conversions for high power broadly tunable sources. Since its broad gain bandwidth overlaps with Ti:Sapphire in 800 nm range, ultra-high power and high contrast laser systems have been built based on the mixed CPA/OPCPA plan. 

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Features

  • Wide transmission region from 190 nm to 3500nm

  • Large effective second-harmonic-generation (SHG) coefficient

  • Good mechanical and physical properties

  • High damage threshold of 10 J/cm2 for 100 ps pulse-width at 1064 nm

  • Broad phase-matching range from 409.6 nm to 3500nm

  • Wide temperature-bandwidth of about 55℃

  • High optical homogeneity with δn≈10-6/cm   

Applications

  • Harmonic generations (up to fifth) of Nd doped lasers

  • Frequency doubling and tripling of ultrashort Ti:Sapphire and Dye lasers

  • Frequency doubling of Argon ion and Copper vapour laser radiation

  • Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) at both Type 1(ooe) and Type 2 (eoe) phase-matching

  • Electro-optic crystal for Pockels cells

  • Ultrashot pulse duration measurements by autocorrelation

Chemical and Physical Properties  

Property

Value

Chemical formula 

BaB2O4

Crystal structure

trigonal, 3m

Lattice Parameter

a=b=12.532Å,c=12.717Å, Z=6

Mass density 

3.85 g/cm3

Moh hardness

4

Melting point

About 1095°C

Thermal conductivity

1.2 W/m/K (⊥c); 1.6 W/m/K (//c)

Thermal expansion coefficient 

α,4x10-6/K; c,36x10-6/K

Birefringence

negative uniaxial

Linear Optical Properties  

Property

Value

Transparency Range

189 - 3500 nm

Absorption Coefficient:

α<0.1%/cm @1064nm

Refractive Indices

at 1.0642 mm

at 0.5321 mm

at 0.2660 mm

 

ne = 1.5425, no = 1.6551

ne = 1.5555, no = 1.6749

ne = 1.6146, no = 1.7571

Sellmeier Equations(λ in μm)

no2(λ) = 2.7359+0.01878/(λ2-0.01822)-0.01354λ2

ne2(λ) = 2.3753+0.01224/(λ2-0.01667)-0.01516λ2

Nonlinear Optical Properties 

Property

Value

SHG Phase Matchable Range

409.6 ∼ 3500nm (Type I); 525 ∼ 3500nm (TypeII)

NLO coefficients

d11= 5.8 x d36(KDP);d31 = 0.05 x d11; d22< 0.05 x d11

deff(I)=d31sinϴ + (d11cos3φ - d22sin3φ)cosϴ

deff(II)=(d11sin3φ+ d22cos3ϴ)cos2ϴ

Therm-Optic Coefficients

dno/dT = - 9.3 x 10-6/C

dne/dT = -16.6 x 10-6/C

Electro-Optic Coefficients

g11= 2.7 pm/V, g22, g31< 0.1 g11

Half-Wave Voltage      

48 KV (at 1064 nm)

Damage Threshold

at 1.064 mm

at 0.532 mm 

 

5 GW/cm2 (10 ns); 10 GW/cm2 (1.3 ns)

1 GW/cm2 (10 ns); 7 GW/cm2 (250 ps)

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Figure 2. SHG tuning curves of BBO

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Figure 3. OPO tuning curves of BBO (TypeI (ooe))with different pump light, namely 530 nm, 355 nm and 266 nm

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Figure 4. OPO tuning curves of BBO (TypeII (eoe))with different pump light, namely 530 nm, 355 nm and 266 nm

Polishing Specification

Property

Value

Orientation Tolerence

< 0.5°

Thickness/Diameter Tolerance

±0.05 mm

Surface Flatness

<λ/8@632 nm

Wavefront Distortion

<λ/4@632 nm

Surface Quality

10/5

Parallel

30〞

Perpendicular

15ˊ

Clear Aperture

>90%

Chamfer

<0.2×45°

Standard products   

Crystal

dimension/mm

Length/mm

Application

Orientation

Theta/Phi deg

PP Coatings S1/S2 nm/nm

6 x 6

1

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

6 x 6

1

THG@800nm

44.3/90

400 - 800 / 266

6 x 6

0.2

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

10 x 10

0.5

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

6 x 6

0.5

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

6 x 6

0.5

THG@800nm

44.3/90

400 - 800 / 266

6 x 6

1.5

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

6 x 6

0.1

THG@800nm

44.3/90

400 - 800 / 266

6 x 6

2

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

10 x 10

1

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

6 x 6

0.5

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

8 x 8

0.5

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

8 x 8

1

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

8 x 8

1.5

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

8 x 8

2

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

10 x 10

0.2

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

6 x 6

1

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

6 x 6

2

SHG@1030nm

23.4/90

515 - 1030 / 515 - 1030

6 x 6

0.1

SHG@800nm

29.2/90

400 - 800 / 400 - 800

6 x 6

0.2

THG@800nm

44.3/90

400 - 800 / 266

Q&A

Q: What is phase mismatching?

A: A group of techniques for achieving efficient nonlinear interactions in a medium. Many phase-sensitive nonlinear processes, in particular parametric processes such as frequency doubling, sum and difference frequency generation, parametric amplification and oscillation, and also four-wave mixing, require phase matching to be efficient. Essentially, this means ensuring that a proper phase relationship between the interacting waves (for optimum nonlinear frequency conversion) is maintained along the propagation direction. Only if that condition is fulfilled, amplitude contributions from different locations to the product wave are all in phase at the end of the nonlinear crystal.

Q: What is Second harmonic generation (SHG)?

A: SHG is a nonlinear optical process, in which photons with the same frequency interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively "combined" to generate new photons with twice the energy, and therefore twice the frequency and half the wavelength of the initial photons.

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